Architects and Specification Writers: Part 3

The final article in our three-part series examines specifiers, construction documentation, and the relationship with the rest of the project team and work to be done.
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Specification divisions

By Cyrus Kabeer, CSP, NCARB, AIA, LEED AP

As is the case for Part 1 and Part 2, this concluding article in a series on architects, specifiers, and construction documentation does not seek to offer an all-encompassing view of spec writing. (Readers should check out the resources offered by Construction Specifications Canada [CSC] for a more in-depth look.) This final piece looks at specification divisions.

Division 00
Division 00−Procurement and Contracting Requirements is included in the project manual. It follows the MasterFormat numbering system, but is not considered specifications. Division 00 is divided into three categories:

  • Introductory Information (e.g. cover page, table of contents, and list of drawings)
  • Procurement Requirements (e.g. invitations to bid, instruction to bidders, existing condition reports, bid forms, bid security, and proposal forms); and
  • Contract Requirements (e.g. contract conditions, forms of agreement, insurance requirements, surety and bonds, and supplementary conditions).

This division has many legal implications and should be prepared in co-ordination with the owner’s legal counsel, insurance consultants, and surety advisors. Most government agencies provide their own Division 00.

Division 01
Division 01−General Requirements is broadly divided into nine categories:

01 10 00−Summary
Section 01 11 00−Summary of Work describes the work, design, and future considerations. It also describes the pre-purchased products, materials supplied by the owner, owner-installed material, salvaged material, required phasing of work, etc.

Some projects require multiple prime contractors, so Section 01 12 00−Summary of Works (Multiple Contracts) describes their responsibilities.

Section 01 14 00–Work Restrictions describes the requirements of partial occupancy, continuous operations other occupants, limit of hours of operation, and access restrictions.

01 20 00−Price and Payment Procedures
Section 01 21 00–Allowances refers to cost, quality, or time adjustments the contractor must include in the bid price. Allowances must be co-ordinated between the several sections in which they are included. Bid forms in Division 00 supplementary conditions should be included in the technical section, calling attention to the allowance, along with the cost, quality, and time adjustments. The most common type of allowance is the cost (e.g. ‘cash’) allowance.

Section 01 22 00–Unit Prices is more popular in some other regions (e.g. India or the Middle East), and is often used for the whole project. It can be employed for a complete project or just part of one. The bid forms indicate quantity; they are estimates used for comparing bids. The payments are based on the quantity take-off for the final quality of the product. (Unit prices are more commonly used in construction where actual quantities may be unknown and usually vary from designed quantity.)

Section 01 23 00–Alternates is a separately priced portion of work in the bid form providing an option for the owner in determining the final scope of project. It differs from project to project. Just like allowances, alternates should also be co-ordinated between this section, Invitation to Bid, and Bid Forms in Division 00, and should be included in corresponding technical sections. The agreement should clearly indicate the alternate selected, which becomes part of the contract.

Section 01 25 00–Substitution Procedures indicates the procedures for the contractor’s submissions and the architect’s consideration of substitutions during bidding, negotiation, and construction. If substitutions are allowed, it describes the documents required for the architect to consider the substitution.

Section 01 26 00–Contract Modifications Procedures sets out the procedure for the contractor to submit RFIs or clarifications of items not adequately detailed or specified in the contract documents. It may also include the procedures for supplemental instructions, field orders, change notice, and change orders.

Section 01 29 00−Payment Procedures indicates the requirements for submittal of schedule of values, procedures for application and review of progress payments, progressive release of holdbacks, substantial performance, payment procedures for testing laboratories, and final payment.

01 30 00−Administrative Requirements
Section 01 31 00–Project Management and Co-ordination specifies the administrative requirement for management of construction, along with co-ordination with subcontractors (or other installers in a multiple contract) and the owner. This is also the location for progress records, including Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) documents (with a reference to Section 01 81 00−Facility Performance Requirements).

Section 01 31 19−Project Meetings describes administrative requirements of preconstruction, pre-installation, and project meetings. This includes frequency, as well as who arranges the meetings and takes and distributes the minutes.

Section 01 32 00−Construction Progress Documentation requires the contractor to submit (within a fixed period after signing the agreement) schedules for construction progress, shop drawings and product data, samples, LEED submittals, progress photographs, and schedules for owner-supplied products.

Section 01 33 00−Submittal Procedures specifies the administration and procedural requirement for submission of electronic or paper copies for shop drawings, product data, samples, and other documents required.

Section 01 35 00–Special Procedures may be used based on the type of project—for example, if it is an alteration to an existing building, a healthcare or military facility, airport, shopping centre, or correctional facility with special health, security, access and egress, or other needs, this section may apply.

01 40 00−Quality Requirements
For an average project, this category has only one section. It includes administrative and procedural requirements for quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), inspection and test procedures, mockups, mill tests, adjustment of equipment, paper or electronic reports, and reviews.

01 50 00−Temporary Facilities and Control
Depending on the size and type of project, this section/category can be further divided in multiple sections. For the ‘average’ project, it is preferably specified in one section. It describes the erection and subsequent removal of temporary facilities including factors like heating, electricity, water, fire protection, site office, sanitary facilities, vehicular access, barriers, erosion and sediment control, and temporary signage.

01 60 00−Product Requirements
This section specifies the contractor’s options for selecting a product (co-ordinated with 01 25 00), along with delivery and storage and handling. Section 01 64 00–Owner-furnished Products describes the procedures and requirements for co-ordinating, receiving, handling, storing, and installing products ordered or supplied by the owner.

01 70 00−Execution and Closeout Requirements
Section 01 71 00–Examination and Preparation describes the preparation for construction, along with the initial survey requirements.

Section 01 73 00–Execution specifies the installation of owner-furnished material (co-ordinated with 01 64 00), as well as requirements associated with connecting an existing building with a new one and removal, repair, storage, or reuse of salvaged material.

Section 01 74 00−Cleaning and Waste Disposal specifies the progressive and final cleaning of the construction site.

Section 01 74 20−Waste Management and Disposal and Section 01 74 21–Demolition Waste Management and Disposal are based on the 3 Rs—reduce, reuse, and recycle. It is also a detailed specification of, and should be co-ordinated with LEED Requirements and Procedures for the rating program.

Section 01 75 00–Start-up and Adjustments describes procedures for startup and adjusting of equipment. It also describes third-party testing of all materials and equipment.

Section 01 77 00–Closeout Procedures and Submittals includes inspections, final cleaning, maintenance requirements, operation and maintenance (O&M) manuals, record drawings, final survey, extra material, warranties, commissioning, final review, and takeover.

Section 01 79 00–Demonstrating and Training specifies the demonstration of startup, operations, troubleshooting, servicing, and maintenance of equipment. It also includes instruction of owner’s maintenance staff on maintaining and servicing, and reviewing it with the O&M manual.

01 90 00−Life Cycle Activities
Section 01 91 00−Commissioning specifies the general requirements for commissioning of the facility and its systems (including testing, adjusting, and balancing). This section must be co-ordinated with 01 75 00.

Section 01 94 00–Facilities Decommissioning specifies the process of deactivating an existing system.

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