April 1, 2012
By Brittany Hanam, MASc, EIT, Graham Finch, MASc, P.Eng., and Dave Ricketts, MSc, P.Eng.
Of all the components of a building enclosure, windows can have the greatest impact on energy consumption. This can be disproportionate to the area of the enclosure the windows cover. Therefore, it is important architects and specifiers are aware of the significant impact of windows on the overall building enclosure’s thermal performance when designing, evaluating, and selecting enclosure assemblies for new buildings and retrofit projects. The examples in this article focus on residential buildings, but the discussion generally applies to most facility types.
Understanding the thermal performance of windows
There are two properties that describe the energy performance of windows: U-value (i.e. U-factor) and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC).
Thermal performance of windows and other building enclosure components is typically measured in terms of either U-value or R-value. The former is a measure of the overall rate of heat transfer through the entire fenestration product (or other enclosure assembly) under standardized winter conditions. While the rate of heat transfer varies through the frame, the glass edge, and the centre of glass, the U-value represents the overall rate of heat transfer through all these components. U-value is expressed in either W/m2-K or Btu/h-sf-F under standardized winter conditions and usually for a standard window unit size.
R-value is the thermal resistance of a material or assembly––in other words, its ability to resist heat transfer. The R-value is the inverse of the U-value (R = 1/U). U-values are most commonly used to describe windows, while R-values are typically used for opaque enclosure assemblies such as walls and roofs. One should always remember that for optimal thermal performance, high R-values and low U-values are good.
SHGC is the proportion of incident solar radiation transferred through the product, and is a decimal fraction between zero (totally opaque) and 1.0 (a hole in the wall). A window with a high SHGC allows more heat from the sun that hits the window to reach the inside space. A window with a low SHGC allows less solar heat incident on the window to enter the building.
Lower U-factors are always desirable as they represent less heat transfer (primarily winter heat loss) and, therefore, less energy needed for heating and cooling. The merits of increasing or decreasing the SHGC depend on building-specific design parameters. In cold climates, fenestration with high solar heat gain can reduce the need for heating in winter. In many climates, however, it is also beneficial to minimize solar heat gain in summer for comfort or to reduce the need for cooling. The optimal SHGC should be chosen based on numerous factors including climate, window orientation, and exterior shading features.
The U-factor and SHGC of a window can be determined by either Canadian Standards Association (CSA) A440.2, Energy Performance of Windows and Other Fenestration Systems, or National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) 100, Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product U-factors, and NFRC 200, Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product Solar Heat Gain Co-efficient and Visible Transmittance at Normal Incidence.
R-Values and U-Values in context
To put the numbers in perspective, a 38 x 140-mm (2 x 6-in.) wood frame wall with R-21 (RSI-3.7) batt insulation has an overall effective R-value of about R-16 (RSI-2.8) (loss in insulation R-value occurs due to thermal bridging of the wood studs). A steel-framed wall with continuous exterior insulation––uninterrupted by framing (i.e. not between the studs)—can achieve overall R-values of R-15 (RSI-2.6) and greater, depending on the insulation thickness. A low-slope roof with 102 mm (4 in.) of continuous insulation can achieve R-20 (RSI-3.5). (This information is according to American Society for Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1-2010, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-rise Residential Buildings).
Windows generally have lower R-values than opaque enclosure assemblies. Their R-values typically range from R-1 (RSI-0.2) for poor-performing products (e.g. single-glazed with an aluminum frame) to about R-6 (RSI-1.1) for a high-performance product that still uses conventional technologies (e.g. triple-glazing with a fibreglass frame and multiple low-emissivity [low-e] coatings). These R-values correspond to a high (i.e. poor) U-value of U-1 (USI-5.7) to a best U-value of 0.17 (USI-1.0). Although higher R-value products are available, they use proprietary technologies and are often cost-prohibitive for many projects.
Thermal anatomy of a building
The overall thermal performance of a building, or part of it, can be calculated by area-weighting the individual building enclosure U-values. (It is important for one to remember the area weighting calculations must be done using U-values and not R-values. The technical explanation for this is because R-values in parallel cannot be added linearly (similar to resistors in an electrical circuit). This is also why the overall R-value is not linearly related to the individual R-value components. Components with poor (i.e. low) R-values but less area can still have a great effect on the overall building R-value). For example, for a building enclosure consisting primarily of windows, walls, and roof, the overall U-value would be:
Uoverall = % windows x Uwindows + % walls x Uwalls + % roof x Uroof
The overall U-value or R-value of a building enclosure can give a quick and general idea of how the building will perform in terms of energy consumption. A building with a high R-value (i.e. low U-value) will generally have lower heating and cooling energy requirements than a building with a low R-value (i.e. high U-value). There are many other factors that contribute to a building’s energy performance, but the enclosure is generally a very important one.
For example, the following demonstrates an effective enclosure R-value calculation for a wood-framed house. Its walls, windows, and roof are in the following proportions:
Using the area-weighting formula:
Uoverall = 1/16 x 0.50 + 1/40 x 0.30 + 1/2 x 0.20 (1/2.8 x 0.50 + 1/7 x 0.30 + 1/0.4 x 0.20)
Uoverall = 0.14 = R-7 (USI-0.72 = RSI-1.4)
This calculation is also shown in Figure 1. The amount of total heat loss through each enclosure component is calculated by dividing the U*(per cent area) for each component by the total overall U-value (sum of U*per cent area). This simplified analysis ignores heat loss due to air leakage, which can be just as significant as conductive heat loss through an enclosure; however, the focus here is to relate heat loss through windows to other enclosure components.
Calculating the percentage of heat loss through each component shows that, for this scenario, 72 per cent of heat loss is through the windows, even though they only represent 20 per cent of the enclosure area. This means improving the windows, rather than the wall or roof R-values, is the best way to raise the house’s thermal performance.
This is shown graphically in Figure 2. In Figure 2a, using a window U-value of 0.5 or R-2 (USI-2.8 or RSI-0.4), 72 per cent of heat loss occurs through the windows. In Figure 2b, if the windows are improved to U-0.25 or R-4 (USI-1.4 or RSI-0.7), heat loss through the windows is reduced to 56 per cent. The R-2 (RSI-0.4) improvement in windows results in an overall enclosure R-11 (RSI-1.9)––an increase of R-4 (RSI-0.7) or 57 per cent.
High-rise, non-combustible buildings perform very differently from low-rise, wood-framed ones. High-rises also tend to have larger window-to-wall ratios (WWRs). The overall R-value calculations are repeated for a high-rise building with a greater proportion of windows:
The percentage of heat loss through each of the three enclosure components is shown in Figure 3. With a larger window area, heat loss through windows is now 93 per cent in the scenario with R-2 or U-0.5 (RSI-0.4 or USI-2.8) windows, with an overall enclosure R-3 (RSI-0.5). When the windows are upgraded to R-4 or U-0.25 (RSI-0.7 or USI-1.4), the overall R-value improves to R-6 (RSI-1.1)––an increase of R-3 (RSI-0.5) or 100 per cent. Even in this scenario, windows account for 87 per cent of heat loss even though they represent 60 per cent of the enclosure area.
Evaluating the impact of windows
Calculating approximate heat flows through the primary enclosure components can give designers a general idea of the relative importance of improving various enclosure components. Figure 4 shows the influence of window thermal performance and WWR on the overall building thermal performance.
For example, Point A represents a baseline window at 40 per cent WWR. At this point, even with an enclosure R-value of R-16 (RSI-2.8), the overall combined wall and window R-value is about R-4 (RSI-0.7). From this point, two fenestration changes can improve the overall R-value: decreasing the WWR or using better windows (i.e. lower U-value).
Improving the windows to insulated vinyl or fibreglass frames (Point B) increases the overall R-value to almost R-10 (RSI-1.8). Greater R-value improvements may be realized by decreasing the WWR.
Improving the windows versus improving the walls
In the design of a new building with a limited budget, designers may need to decide between improving window thermal performance versus improving the walls or roof. Similarly with energy retrofit projects, one can look at whether improving the walls, roof, or windows would have a greater effect on the overall enclosure R-value. The simple answer is to improve all assemblies as much as possible. In terms of where to spend money to get the most improvement, the answer is almost always the windows.
Figure 5 shows the effect of window U-value and wall R-value on annual space heating energy consumption for one suite in a typical Vancouver high-rise residential building. Improving the window U-value results in significant reductions to space heat energy consumption. However, given a particular window U-value, improving the wall R-value results in only small energy savings. This is because the windows account for a much greater proportion of heat loss through the enclosure. Improving the wall R-value has less impact on energy savings.
Selecting energy-efficient windows
Whether designing or selecting windows for a new construction or renovation project, it is important to consider the thermal performance of the windows to reduce building energy consumption. In general, windows with a low U-value will have a better thermal performance. Lower U-values can be achieved by selecting:
Selecting windows with an appropriate solar heat gain coefficient is also important. A higher SHGC can reduce heating requirements by increasing passive solar heat gains. However, a high SHGC also presents the risk of overheating the space and raising cooling energy. For non-shaded windows oriented south, east, and west, a low SHGC is typically preferred to prevent overheating or increased cooling energy. If the windows are shaded by exterior shades, adjacent buildings, trees, or other features, then a high SHGC may be used to provide more solar heat gain in the winter, but shade the windows in the summer. SHGC should be evaluated for each unique project.
Moderate WWRs typically result in better enclosure thermal performance and lower energy consumption. Window-to-wall ratios in the range of 20 to 40 per cent can provide winter heating, daylight, and views without excess heat loss. Greater WWRs typically result in significant heat loss due to poor enclosure thermal performance.
The thermal performance of windows contributes greatly to the overall energy consumption of a building. Although they may be a small portion of the overall building enclosure area, windows can account for a greater portion of heat loss through the enclosure.
In both new buildings and retrofits, it is important to address window thermal performance. One should choose windows with low U-values and select glazing with an SHGC appropriate for the specific project conditions. Investing in windows with a better thermal performance will pay back over time in energy savings, as well as help reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
Brittany Hanam, MASc, EIT, is a building science engineer at RDH Building Engineering. She has more than three years of experience in the building science field. Hanam can be contacted via e-mail at email@example.com.
Graham Finch, MASc, P.Eng., is a building science research engineer at RDH Building Engineering. He has more than seven years of experience in consulting engineering and building research. Finch can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dave Ricketts, MSc, P.Eng., is a principal and senior building science specialist at RDH Building Engineering. He has more than 30 years of experience in the building science field and is the chair of the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of B.C.’s (APEGBC’s) Building Enclosure Committee and past president of the BC Building Envelope Council (BCBEC). Ricketts can be contacted at email@example.com.
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